A number of issues are unique to the female athlete. Some are at the very least more prevalent in women, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears of the knee and concussions.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament tears

Due to the high incidence of ACL injuries in sports, prevention programs are critical. They are especially important for female athletes, who face a higher risk of ACL tears. Neuromuscular training exercises can help reduce the risk of an ACL injury from an early age. These prevention programs blend landing stabilization exercises with lower extremity strengthening.


Women face a higher risk of concussion when playing the same sport as men. Soccer and basketball are common examples—and the reason for this is multifactorial. Dr. Wang has published and lectured internationally on these topics. Visit the Concussion section of this website for details.

Dr. Wang also serves on the advisory board of PINK Concussions, a nonprofit organization dedicated to increasing awareness of female brain injuries. Visit https://www.pinkconcussions.com for more information.

ACL injuries and concussions are not the only issues affecting female athletes. Below you’ll find a modification of Dr. Wang’s “Female Athlete Diamond” concept, originally published in the Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science: Volleyball

The Female Athlete Diamond

This “Female Athlete Diamond” diagram illustrates common presenting medical conditions seen in female athletes (pink) and their contributing causes. With increased awareness of these factors, we can better care for the female athlete.